; various UNIX projects written in assembly language
; of course all of them feature extremely small size
; if you’re looking for source code and examples, here they are

name short description platform OS assembler
asmutils miscellaneous utilities, small libc IA32 Linux, *BSD (Unixware, Solaris, AtheOS, BeOS) nasm
libASM assembly library (lots of various routines) IA32 Linux nasm
e3 WordStar-like text editor IA32 Linux, *BSD, AtheOS, BeOS, Win32 nasm
ec64 Commodore C64 emulator IA32 Linux nasm
lib4th Forth kernel implemented as shared library IA32 Linux nasm
Tiny Programs tiny Linux executables IA32 Linux nasm
Softer Orange terminal emulator IA32 Linux nasm
ta traffic accounting daemon IA32 Linux nasm
cpuburn CPU loading utilities IA32 Linux, FreeBSD gas
H3sm 3-stack Forth-like language
(and other stuff from Rick Hohensee)
IA32 Linux gas
F4 x86 Linux fig-Forth IA32 Linux gas
eforth eforth converted to nasm/asmutils IA32 Linux nasm
eforth original Linux eforth IA32 Linux gas
ASMIX several command-line utilities IA32, PPC, SPARC, PDP11 Linux, FreeBSD, LynxOS, Solaris, Unixware, SunOS gas
Bizarre Source, Corp several system utilities IA32 Linux gas
VMW Assembly tricks linux_logo and other ASCII tricks in assembly IA32, IA64, Alpha, PPC, SPARC, S390 Linux gas
acid small textmode intro IA32, ARM Linux nasm, gas
asm-toys few utilities IA32 Linux gas
smallutils few small utils in assembly and C IA32, SPARC Linux gas

There are quite a lot of mixed C-assembly projects, like GNU MP library, ATLAS/BLAS, OpenGUI, FreeAmp, just to name few. Also see source code of your kernel and libc. All this will provide you examples of assembly programming on different hardware platforms.

; Various documents on the topic
; Some of them are mustread

Linux Assembly HOWTO

List of Linux/i386 system calls, also this one and this one. Linux Kernel Internals provides useful information too,
read at least particular How System Calls Are Implemented on i386 Architecture? chapter.

Using the GNU Assembler ( gas manual )

; CPU manuals and assembly programming guides (also see this list)

IA-32 (x86):,, Intel, AMD, Cyrix, x86 bugs, optimization
x86-64: AMD x86-64(tm) technology
IA-64: Intel Itanium manuals, IA-64 Linux
ARM: ARM Assembler Programming
Alpha: Compaq Tru64 UNIX 5.1, Digital UNIX 4.0, other manuals, old Digital Documentation Library
SPARC: SPARC International Standard Documents Repository, Technical SPARC CPU Resources
PA-RISC: PA-RISC technical documentation
PPC: Beginners Guide to PowerPC Assembly Language, Introduction to assembly on the PowerPC
MIPS: MIPS Online Publications Library

; Executable formats

Current ELF draft

Older System V ABIs

Kickers of ELF

Programmer’s File Format Collection

; Books

The Art Of Assembly
by Randall Hyde. Classic book on x86 assembly programming, Windows and Linux (32bit) and DOS (16bit).

PC Assembly Language
by Paul Carter. 32bit protected mode programming, Windows and Linux (NASM).

Programming from the Ground Up
by Jonathan Bartlett. Introduction to programming based on Linux and assembly language (GAS).

Assembler for DOS, Windows and UNIX
by Sergey Zubkov. ISBN 5-89818-019-2, 637 pages, 1999. In Russian language.

Inner Loops : A Sourcebook for Fast 32-Bit Software Design
by Rick Booth. ISBN: 0201479605, 364 pages, 1997; Addison-Wesley Pub Co

Assembly Language Step-By-Step; Programming with DOS and Linux with CDROM
by Jeff Duntemann. ISBN: 0471375233, 612 pages, 2000; John Wiley & Sons

Linux Assembly Language Programming
by Bob Neveln. ISBN: 0130879401, 350 pages, 2000; Prentice Hall Computer Books

Linux Assembly
by Peter Berends. x86 assembly programming in Linux environment. In Dutch language.

Introduction to RISC Assembly Language Programming
by John Waldron. ISBN: 0201398281

SPARC Architecture, Assembly Language Programming, and C
by Richard Paul.

; Articles

Startup state of a Linux/i386 ELF binary

Self-modifying code under Linux

Using the framebuffer device under Linux

Using the audio device under Linux

Using the raw keyboard mode under Linux

Using Mode X via direct VGA access under Linux

Using virtual terminals under Linux

; If you’re new to UNIX assembly programming, this is where you begin

Introduction to UNIX assembly programming ( nasm; Linux, *BSD, BeOS )

Using Assembly Language in Linux ( AT&T and Intel syntax, gcc inline assembly )

Introductory Linux Assembler Tutorial ( gas and the Co )

Writing A Useful Program With NASM ( nasm )

Linux assembly tutorial ( gas, gdb )

Linux socket/network programming ( gas )

How do I write “Hello, world” in FreeBSD assembler? ( as )

FreeBSD Assembly Programming tutorial ( nasm )

Inline assembly for x86 in Linux ( gas and gcc inline assembly )

DJGPP QuickAsm Programming Guide ( gas and gcc inline assembly )

Brennan’s Guide to Inline Assembly ( gcc inline assembly )

Introduction to GCC Inline Asm ( gcc inline assembly )

SPARC assembly “Hello world” ( NetBSD, SunOS, Solaris )

GNOME application in IA32 assembly ( nasm, gcc )

A Whirlwind Tutorial on Creating Really Teensy ELF Executables for Linux

another tiny example illustrating a tiny ELF header ( nasm )

; Links to somehow related projects

; tools

NASM x86 assembler with Intel syntax
FASM another promising x86 assembler with Intel syntax
OTCCELF tiny C compiler, generates a dynamically linked ELF file
ALD Assembly Language Debugger
BASTARD Bastard Disassembly Environment
DUDE Despotic Unix Debugging Engine
BIEW console hex viewer/editor with built-in disassembler
HTE viewer/editor/analyzer for text, binary, and executable files
UPX Ultimate Packer for eXecutables
Intel2gas converter between AT&T and Intel assembler syntax
A2I converter from AT&T to Intel assembler syntax
TA2AS converter from TASM to AT&T assembler syntax
SPARC ASM SPARC v8 assembler & disassembler
binutils as they are: gas, ld, ar, etc

; sites

Jan’s Linux & Assembler page various source code examples
H-Peter Recktenwald’s page “The Int80h page”
Karsten Scheibler’s page “Unused Inode”
G. Adam Stanislav’s page FreeBSD related material
Bruce Ediger’s page SPARC assembly related material
Michael Blomgren’s page
Assembly Programming Journal
Phrack Magazine